In a nationwide memorial deal with at Oslo Cathedral simply two days after the assaults, Stoltenberg referred to as for “extra democracy, extra openness, and extra humanity.”
Talking with CNN’s “Amanpour” present in an interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-general — repeated that message and applauded the way in which Norwegians had responded. However, he warned, the “hatred remains to be on the market.”
The writer of one of many reviews, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, informed CNN it appeared extra restricted than media protection would counsel. “There was after all plenty of concern after the assaults that they’d generate copycat assaults,” he stated. However “considerably surprisingly,” he stated, there have not been many clear-cut circumstances of direct inspiration from Breivik.
However though Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had began his planning a while earlier than he learn Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you possibly can query how a lot of an influence Breivik had,” Ravndal stated. Tarrant’s personal manifesto may be very completely different from Breivik’s, together with in its politics, he added.
The Counter Extremism Venture (CEP), an NGO that combats extremist teams, stated in a press release Thursday that survivors of Breivik’s assaults had voiced concern concerning his “standing as an inspirational determine amongst far-right extremists.”
“[This status] underlines the necessity for larger motion to focus on the dissemination of recognized extremist propaganda with clear hyperlinks to violence on on-line platforms,” stated David Ibsen, CEP govt director. “The continued presence of far-right views on-line, together with larger publicity to extremist content material over the course of the Covid-19 pandemic, is of specific concern.”
Based on Ravndal, analysis signifies that inside Norway the far proper has not gained a lot enchantment general because the assaults and has been unable to prove supporters in any numbers on the streets.
“In fact in Norway, as all over the place else, on-line exercise has grown over these 10 years,” he stated. “However whether or not that displays a considerable improve of far-right exercise or just mirrors the expansion of social media on the web, that is very troublesome to say.”
Breivik, in the meantime, had set off by automotive on the 25-mile journey to Utoya Island, the place a Labour Get together summer time youth camp was happening. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety following the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a taking pictures spree through which 69 individuals died — most of them youngsters. Many others had been significantly wounded.
Based on Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the UK-based Centre for Evaluation of the Radical Proper (CARR), Breivik’s doc can nonetheless “simply” be discovered within the darker reaches of the web regardless of efforts to take away it.
That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman stated, “not simply because it confirmed what one particular person can do when it comes to the horrific lack of life” but in addition in its focusing on of Muslims and what Breivik referred to as “cultural Marxism.”
Regardless of this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in line with Ravndal.
His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “at first the far-right throughout the board rejected him,” stated Ravndal. A web-based assist community that was established for Breivik later collapsed. It was solely with the emergence of on-line boards like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik as soon as once more began to get optimistic mentions, Ravndal stated.
“The principle discovering, all in all, each in terms of ways but in addition for political, ideological assist, is that it has been surprisingly little,” he stated. “It has been doable to seek out assist, however luckily lower than one may need nervous about initially contemplating the excessive demise toll and all the eye these assaults obtained globally.”
As we speak, the controversy has shifted in components of Norwegian society to broader ideological questions, Ravndal stated.
Some — significantly within the youth wing of the Labour Get together — really feel that there has not been a reckoning with the nation’s far-right motion, the largest participant through which is the populist, right-wing Progress Get together, he stated.
“We should all stand collectively towards violent extremism — no matter whether or not it comes from the ‘far proper’, ‘far left’ or excessive interpretations of faith,” the assertion stated. “Solely the extremists will win if we exclude one another from the grief after July 22 and weaken the unity across the wrestle for democracy, freedom of expression and equality.”
Labour has promised that if it wins energy in elections this September, it’ll arrange a brand new fee to have a look at radicalization.
There’s additionally debate about whether or not the assault must be interpreted as an assault on Norwegian society as an entire, or as an assault on the Labour Get together particularly, Ravndal stated. “As we speak, some inside the Labour Get together maybe really feel that that a part of the story has been uncared for a bit.”
Feldman considers that Norway’s response was formed by the sense that the perpetrator was “considered one of their very own,” as had been the victims, with no sense of “otherness” to pressure a extra multicultural response.
“Norway basically requested itself this query, and it is a very legitimate one … ‘How did Norwegian society produce such a monster?'” he stated. “It is a very inward-looking query.”
In contrast, he stated, New Zealand took a way more world strategy because it checked out what led as much as the Christchurch assaults. This was partly as a result of Tarrant, an Australian, had focused worshipers at mosques, a lot of whom had been foreign-born.
He hopes to win additional commitments to counter extremist content material on-line at an occasion he’s concerned with in Bergen, Norway, subsequent month.
Breivik’s ideology ‘remains to be on the market’
Talking to CNN earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the dimensions of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the private unhappiness it introduced, since he knew most of the victims.
He additionally stood by the message he delivered to the nation because it was nonetheless reeling from the July 22 assaults.
“I nonetheless imagine that our reply was the fitting one,” Stoltenberg informed CNN. “[Breivik] wished to assault our free, open democratic societies. So the very best response is extra openness, extra democracy, as a result of then we show that he’s not successful, we’re successful.
“He demonstrated hatred. One of the best response to hatred is love. So … I actually welcomed the sturdy message from the individuals of Norway, as (we) have seen additionally in lots of different international locations which have been attacked, that we get up for our values.”
That however, Stoltenberg doesn’t imagine that Breivik has been fully defeated.
“He’s convicted, he’s in jail. However his ideology, that’s nonetheless on the market. And subsequently we have to proceed — I believe we by no means shall be within the place the place we will say that we have now received the combat, we will shut the chapter preventing towards extremism.”
Since 2011, Norway has carried out measures to guard — so far as doable — towards such assaults sooner or later, Stoltenberg stated. And, he added, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence may very well be prolonged sooner or later if he nonetheless poses a risk — has misplaced in a single key respect.
“We’ve got to grasp that the aim of this assault was to vary Norway basically. And … sure, after all, this shall be a part of Norway’s historical past,” he stated. “It is going to be a part of who we’re so long as we exist. However basically, it has not modified who we’re.”
CNN’s Frederik Pleitgen contributed to this report.